CCR5 is a validated therapeutic target for brain injury and stroke (Li, 2016; Joy, 2019) and blocking CCR5 improves cognitive deficits in HIV (1, 2), by synapse protecting and microglial altering mechanisms (3, 4). Peptide T (“DAPTA”), which targets CCR2/CCR5, was effective in multiple phase 2 NIH sponsored studies to reverse cognitive decline in neuro-AIDS, especially in those with greater cognitive impairment. Our lead receptor active peptide (RAP) is RAP-103, a shorter oral analog of Peptide T with rapid brain entry. RAP’s show great promise to provide cognition-restoring treatments for neurodegeneration caused by activated microglia as occur in traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, dementias and neuropathies. Our 2-page Treatment Rationale ( R103 for Neurodegeneration ) summarizes the pathogenic mechanisms that underly the observed clinical benefits.